Some of the primary online sources including Collins Dictionary and synonyms.com. FastText was created by Facebook AI Research lab and is a library for efficient learning of word representations and sentence classification. FastText combines some of the most successful concepts of Natural Language Processing and machine learning in a single module.
For example, one of the synonyms for “mother” is “mum.” The word “mum” can have mutiple meanings. As a noun the word “mum” refer to someone’s mother in British English or flowering perennial plants of the genus Chrysanthemum. Computers also have issues when a corpus has related synonyms within the same text being analyzed.
The sentence text has been normalized to remove all punctuations and English stopwords(e.g., to, on). Finding a synonym for a specific word is easy for a human to do using a thesaurus. A thesaurus or synonym dictionary is a general reference for finding synonyms and sometimes the antonyms of a word. A computer application can be programmed to lookup synonyms using a variery of methods. There are several issues with some of the methods, including selecting the wrong synonym based on context.
These thresholds can be linked to the number of connections per second from a given host. Once such a threshold is met a website can automatically drop the external host connections and in some cases block the IP address. Websites also continually modify their code, so web scrapers will require maintenance related to any code changes that impact scraping operations. This automative technique can be used to extract and aggregate synonyms from mutiple sources thus building a more comprehensive list for each word.
It is the reason why, when looking at the entry for equal, you will find 129 different words and phrases, divided amongst the main entry and 28 subcategories. It is why you will see categories as finely differentiated as ‘equal in effect’ and ‘equally powerful’ each of which has specific entries that are slightly different. It is why you have access to the full range of words from efen (which means ‘equal’ and dates back to Old English) to the expression toe-to-toe (which means ‘equal or well matched’ and was first recorded in 1942).
Every one of these words is provided with dates for the first recorded instance of its use in English. In a number of cases there is also a date provided for a word’s last recorded use as well. Given that the Gettysburg Address was written in 1863, the user of this thesaurus would be informed of the fact that fore-runner, antecestre, and eldfather were no longer in use at that time, but that grandsire, ancestor, and progenitor were.
The spaCy library is a powerful Natural Language Processing application, so it’s worth the effort to explore the documentation to discover all the library’s capabilities. Note the only synonym for “mother” is “female_parent.” But for the word “mom” there are 8 synonyms and not one is “mother.” PyDictionary is a module for Python 2.x and Python 3.x that queries synonym.com for the synonyms and antonyms of a word. It does have some capabilities to translate words via Google Translations and obtain the definition of a word. Use filters to view other words, we have 113 synonyms for forebearer. Your father, grandmother, and great grandfather are all your forebears.
Cosine similarity can range from -1 to 1 based on the angle between the two vectors being compared. A value of 1 is a perfect relationship between word vectors (e.g., “mother” compared with “mother”), whereas a value of 0 represents no relationship between words, and a value of -1 represents a perfect opposite relationship between words. A negative similarity means the two words (e.g., what’s a wenis “mom” compared with “mums” are related in component, but in an opposite fashion. WordNet is a lexical database for the English language, which was originally created by Princeton University. The database is currently part of the NLTK corpus This database can be used with the Natural Language Toolkit to find the meanings of words, synonyms, antonyms and other linguistica categories.
Some of the concepts include representing sentences with bag of words and bag of n-grams, as well as using subword information, and sharing information across classes through a hidden representation. The Word2vec algorithm uses a neural network model to learn word associations from a large corpus of text. Once trained, such a model can detect synonymous words or suggest additional words for a partial sentence. Overall spaCy’s token.similarity function did ok with determining the potential relationships between two words.