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Hyphema: Considerations in the Small Animal Patient PMC

Peiffer R.L., Jr, Wilcock B.P., Yin H. The pathogenesis and significance of pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes in domestic animals. Davidson M.G., Breitschwerdt E.B., Nasisse M.P., Roberts S.M. Ocular manifestations of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs. Frank J.R., Breitschwerdt E.B. A retrospective study of ehrlichiosis in 62 dogs from North Carolina and Virginia.

Appears as a bright or dark red fluid level between the cornea and iris, or as a diffuse murkiness of the aqueous humor. Children with hyphema present with acute loss of vision, with or without pain. The treatment of hyphema involves efforts to minimize the vision-threatening sequelae, such as rebleeding, how to prevent chafing at the beach glaucoma, and corneal blood staining. Bedrest is necessary, with elevation of the head of the bed to 30 degrees. A shield is placed on the affected eye, and a cycloplegic agent is used to immobilize the iris. In addition, topical or systemic steroids are used to minimize intraocular inflammation.

In ‘sicklers’ and in children it is preferable to use methazolamide rather than acetazolamide, as the latter lowers plasma pH, which promotes sickling of erythrocytes. Intravenous osmotic diuretics such as mannitol may also have to be used, kidney function permitting, in cases where rapid IOP lowering is required. Sickle cell disease represents a unique challenge in the hyphema patient. Even small amounts of blood in the anterior chamber of such patients may result in severe IOP elevation. Your vet may recommend eye drops to cure inflammation and infection.

Hyphema ranges from small focal blood clots in the ventral anterior chamber to an anterior chamber completely filled with blood. This is the presence of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye. It may occur with either a blunt or perforating injury and represents a situation that may threaten vision. A cut in the eyelid could lead to pain for a dog and result in excessive scratching of the eyelid.

Zemann B.I., Moore A.S., Rand W.M. A combination chemotherapy protocol (VELCAP-L) for dogs with lymphoma. Carraro M.C., Rossetti L., Gerli G.C. Prevalence of retinopathy in patients with anemia or thrombocytopenia. Kohn B., Weingart C., Giger U. Haemorrhage in seven cats with suspected anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. As with all small animal emergencies, obtaining an accurate and thorough history from the client is one of the most helpful and useful diagnostic tools at a veterinarian׳s disposal.

If bacterial in origin, topical, systemic, and perhaps intraocular antibiotics are indicated. Treatment of immune-mediated processes may require systemic or subconjunctival as well as topical corticosteroids and oral azathioprine. Redness within the eye located between the cornea and the iris/pupil. It may settle to the bottom of the anterior chamber due to gravity, or it may form an actual blood clot in the chamber.

If the main cause of the bleeding is inflammation, drops will usually work. With pain relief drugs and treatment, your dog’s eye should be back to normal within no time. A dog’s vision can become impaired with a scratched cornea injury.

A scratched cornea can occur a number of different ways, including outdoor objects like sticks and twigs. Interactions with other animals can lead to a scratched cornea. A cat may claw at a dog’s eye or a dog may get a little rough when playing with other dogs. With anterior uveitis, IOP is generally low, unless the animal has developed secondary glaucoma.

There are no home treatments for this, and close attention needs to be paid to help resolve this problem. To treat glaucoma, prostaglandin, mannitol, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor may be prescribed. Surgical options include laser cyclophotocoagulation, anterior shunts, evisceration, or enucleation.