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Theoretical Perspectives

So our participants may have become familiar with the intelligence test each time . Another limitation of longitudinal research is that the data are limited to only one cohort. When scientists passively observe and measure phenomena it is called correlational research. Here, researchers do not intervene and change behavior, as they do in experiments. In correlational research, the goal is to identify patterns of relationships, but not cause and effect.

The blooming period of neural growth is then followed by a period of pruning, where neural connections are reduced. It is thought that pruning causes the brain to function more efficiently, allowing for mastery of more complex skills . Blooming occurs during the first few years of life, and pruning continues through childhood and into adolescence in various areas of the brain. A normative history-graded influence is an occurrence that happened at a particular period in time, to a specific group of people, or an entire population. We talked about normal expected stuff that happens over a person’s life, and we talked about how we are embedded in history. Now we have to talk about Batman, err, I mean, non-normative influences.

In adolescence (ages 12–18), children face the task of identity versus role confusion. According to Erikson, an adolescent’s main task is developing a sense of self. ” Along the way, most adolescents try on many different selves to see which ones fit. Adolescents who are successful at this stage have a strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of problems and other people’s perspectives.

As children develop, their naming test performance improves until reaching adult levels at age 16 to 17. Active vocabulary normally begins to develop early in the second year of life. Most children produce their first recognizable words between 12 and 18 months of age.

The chronosystem is made up of the environmental events and transitions that occur throughout a child’s life, including any socio-historical events. This system consists of all the experiences that a person has had during their lifetime. Permissive parenting is characterized by high levels of responsiveness combined obituary gardner ma with low levels of demandingness. These parents are lenient and do not necessarily require mature behavior. They allow for a high degree of self-regulation and typically avoid confrontation. Compared to children raised using the authoritative style, preschool girls raised in permissive families are less assertive.

Children have now matured, and begin to think about other people instead of just themselves. The third is the phallic stage, which occurs from three to five years of age (most of a person’s personality forms by this age). During the phallic stage, the child becomes aware of its sexual organs. Pleasure comes from finding acceptance and love from the opposite sex.

The environmental hypothesis explains how children with coordination problems and developmental coordination disorder are exposed to several psychosocial consequences which act as secondary stressors, leading to an increase in internalizing symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Motor coordination problems affect fine and gross motor movement as well as perceptual-motor skills. Secondary stressors commonly identified include the tendency for children with poor motor skills to be less likely to participate in organized play with other children and more likely to feel socially isolated. Other accounts, such as that of Lev Vygotsky, have suggested that development does not progress through stages, but rather that the developmental process that begins at birth and continues until death is too complex for such structure and finality. Rather, from this viewpoint, developmental processes proceed more continuously. Thus, development should be analyzed, instead of treated as a product to obtain.